The Agreement between the United States of America, the United Mexican States and Canada, commonly known as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), is a free trade agreement between Canada, Mexico and the United States to succeed NAFTA.    The agreement was referred to as “NAFTA 2.0″ or “New NAFTA” because many nafta provisions were included and its amendments were considered largely incremented. On July 1, 2020, the USMCA came into effect in all member states. To view the full text of the agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada, click here. The provisions of the agreement cover a wide range of agricultural products, homelessness, manufactured goods, working conditions, digital trade and others. Among the most important aspects of the agreement are better access for U.S. dairy farmers to the Canadian market, guidelines for a greater proportion of automobiles produced in the three countries instead of being imported from other countries, and the maintenance of the dispute settlement system, similar to that contained in NAFTA.   As expected, the USMCA was signed by all three sides at the G20 summit in Buenos Aires on November 30, 2018.   Disputes over labour rights, steel and aluminum prevented the ratification of this version of the agreement.
  On December 10, 2019, Canada`s Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lightizer, and Mexican Under Secretary of State for North America Jesus Seade formally signed a revised agreement, ratified by all three countries on March 13, 2020. During the U.S. 2016 In the presidential election, Donald Trump`s campaign included a promise to renegotiate or cancel NAFTA if the renegotiations failed.  After his election, Trump made a number of changes that affect trade relations with other countries. The withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, the cessation of participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and the significant increase in tariffs with China were some of the measures he implemented and reaffirmed that he was serious in seeking changes to NAFTA.  Much of the debate about the virtues and mistakes of the USMCA is similar to the debate about all free trade agreements (SAAs), for example the nature of free trade agreements as public goods, potential violations of national sovereignty, and the role of commercial, labor, environmental, and consumer interests in shaping the language of trade agreements. . . .